Thursday, August 21, 2014

Script Execution and Privilege Escalation on Jenkins Server

Disclaimer: We would use only existing features of Jenkins, no 'exploits' here.

During a recent penetration test I came across a Jenkins server. Having written a blog post on it, I was really excited and jumped straight to the /script url for the Groovy script console. But, it redirected me to a login page. Bummer!

Anyway, I registered as a user (yes it was allowed), and then tried to go the script console, but (all screenshots from my test machine)

After that, I put the initial excitement aside and started to explore whatever was available and read Jenkins documentation. Some interesting links are given below. All of these are publicly/anonymously accessible in Jenkins Standard Security Setup detailed here:

List of users:
List of all builds:
(Seems to be fixed in the latest version 1.575)
List publilcy available content:
Type of the Operating System:

It turned out that in Standard Security Setup, a registered user and anonymous user have same privileges unless otherwise configured.

During the pen test, I found links to couple of repositories in build details (console outputs) which were a treasure trove. but nothing on the Jenkins server itself. It be noted here that I was unable to see the build details on my test machine which is the latest version.

Anyway, the list of available users got my attention. From my experience working in the industry, I almost knew there would be some easy passwords as developers and build management guys are not really good at passwords :P 

 I quickly ran a brute force on all the listed users using Burp and 500 worst passwords list from Skullsecurity. I ran it on POST request to  /j_acegi_security_check. If you use Burp intruder, make sure it is configured to follow redirects.
No points for guessing, I got password for a user. Yay! Login and jump to the script console but

Few minutes later, I got password for two more users but none had access to the script console. Aaargghhh!

After further exploring Jenkins console, I saw that one of the users could configure build jobs (could not create new ones) and there are couple of very interesting things in the "AddBuild Step" option:

I added a small script, saved the configuration and built the task. Recall that we can get the OS type using http://[jenkinsurl]/computer/
But, damn it:

The script didn't execute. There had to be a way out! I called up my elder brother (he is on twitter, follow him!) who is a veteran in configuration and build management. He suggested me to see if there is any task running before the "Execute Shell" build step and is failing. There was one indeed.
He further suggested if I could re-order the build steps. Quick duck search returned a way, I just need to drag my Build Step to top, save and build. Aaand, finally!

Now, you can try getting a meterpreter session using built-in perl, python, ruby etc. And if it is a windows machine use powershell for various attacks as mentioned in my earlier post. Note that unlike script console we need not use Groovy script if we use the build step.

If you want to get admin access to Jenkins, read on. As per, Jenkins documentation here, you can disable security by setting the [useSecurity]true[/useSecurity] to false in config.xml in $JENKINS_HOME or by deleting the config,xml.

Lets check for $JENKINS_HOME, we use "ps -ef | grep jenkins" in the Shell Execute step.
Now lets see if we can delete config.xml
Save, build and refresh. Bingo! Admin access for everyone!
UPDATE: Deleting config.xml is absolutely not required. You could always run a sed command to replace [useSecurity]true[/useSecurity] with [useSecurity]false[/useSecurity] for same results.

Hope this would be useful. Please leave comments.

Wednesday, July 30, 2014

Kautilya 0.5.0 - Passwords in Plain, Exfiltrate SAM, Code Exec and more

Kautilya 0.5.0 is out. This version adds six more exciting payloads for Windows and supports Ruby bundler! I tried to do away with the menus and make Kautilya UI interactive shell based just like MSF but my Ruby skills failed me. I would be glad if some ruby expert could help me with that.

Anyway, lets have a look at what are the new things.

Using the artii gem, Kautilya would now show different ascii arts as banner :)

Also, you need not install each gem individually now, just run 'bundler install' from Kautilya's root directory.

Coming to the payloads, the new ones are:

Add a user and Enable Powershell Remoting
Simple and effective, this payload adds an administrative user on the target and enables Powershell Remoting from any subnet. An exception to Windows firewall is also added.

Just compile this to your HID and plug in the device.

Dump passwords in plain
This payload is able to dump passwords of users on the target system in plain-text. It uses the excellent Invoke-Mimikatz by Joseph Bialek. You need to host the Invoke-Mimikatz.ps1 on a webserver, it would be downloaded and executed in memory from there. The script could be found in the extras directory.

Lets use it from a local server. Also, lets choose gmail to exfiltrate the results.

And what we get is


Great! There is nothing better to get hold of plain-text credentials.
You could also pass any command of Mimikatz with "Invoke-Mimikatz -command  "

Copy SAM
This payload copies the SAM file with the help of Volume Shadow Service. The SAM file could be exfiltrated ONLY using gmail right now.

I understand that using gmail only means you need to leave credentials of a gmail account on a target. I tested converting the SAM file to hex and exfiltrating using other options but the size of hex file is too big to make it practical, the compression and encoding built in Kautilya, the compress_encode function in exfilmethoddefs file, didn't work either.

Execute Shellcode
Use this to execute shellcode in memory. This is based on the awesome Invoke-Shellcode from Powersploit by Matt Graeber. You need to host the Invoke-Shellcode.ps1 on a webserver, it would be downloaded and executed in memory from there. The script could be found in the extras directory.

After compiling it to a HID and connecting the HID to a target, we could see following on the listener:

The default is set to Metasploit's windows/meterpreter/reverse_https which would work for both 32-bit and 64-bit machines.

Dump Process Memory
This payload takes a full minidump of a process. The dump file could then be exfiltrated using gmail ONLY (same reasons as for Copy SAM). The payload uses logic from Out-MiniDump.ps1 script of Powersploit. By default, the lsass process memory is dumped, but you could specify other process too.

And we recieve the dump in the specified gmail id.
Great! Now this dmp could be used to extract juicy information using any tool of choice.

Kautilya could be found here:

The complete changelog is below:
- Added Execute Shellcode for Windows (under Execution menu).
- Added "Dump passwords in plain" for Windows (under Gather menu).
- Added "Copy SAM (VSS)" for Windows (under Gather menu).
- Added "Dump Process Memory" for Windows (under Gather menu).
- Added "Dump Windows Vault Credentials" for Windows (under Gather menu).
- Added "Add a user and Enable Powershell Remoting" for Windows (under Manage menu).
- Added support for Gems bundler.
- Added more banners of Kautilya.

Hope this would be useful to you. I await feedback, comments and bugs.

Tuesday, June 17, 2014

Hacking Jenkins Servers With No Password - Powershell fun

This post is stolen/copied/inspired from the post by Royce Davis. He posted the awesome original post here on Pentest Geek. I am just taking the hack forward using Nishang and powershell for doing nasty things.

After reading that post I quickly downloaded Jenkins and set it up in my lab. Royce used below code to execute commands on the Jenkins Server.

Lets see the version of powershell on the server by using def proc = 'powershell.exe $psversiontable'.execute() in the above code.

And the result is.

Version 2.0. So we can run powershell cmdlets and other commands. Perfect!

Now lets use powershell one-liner downloader to execute different scripts from Nishang on the Jenkins Server.

To execute the scripts we have to append cmd /c to the powershell command. So, for example, to execute Firebuster from Nishang the code becomes

We can also use encoded scripts. Using Invoke-Encode in Nishang, lets encode Get-Information and execute it.

And the output

What's an exploitation without a meterpreter? So lets use the powershell meterpreter payload generated using msf.

And we have a meterpreter session !

So, the conclusion is, whenever and wherever you are able to execute commands on a Windows machine, try to execute powershell commands and you would be happily surprised.

Nishang could be found here: