Wednesday, July 30, 2014

Kautilya 0.5.0 - Passwords in Plain, Exfiltrate SAM, Code Exec and more

Kautilya 0.5.0 is out. This version adds six more exciting payloads for Windows and supports Ruby bundler! I tried to do away with the menus and make Kautilya UI interactive shell based just like MSF but my Ruby skills failed me. I would be glad if some ruby expert could help me with that.

Anyway, lets have a look at what are the new things.

Using the artii gem, Kautilya would now show different ascii arts as banner :)

Also, you need not install each gem individually now, just run 'bundler install' from Kautilya's root directory.

Coming to the payloads, the new ones are:

Add a user and Enable Powershell Remoting
Simple and effective, this payload adds an administrative user on the target and enables Powershell Remoting from any subnet. An exception to Windows firewall is also added.

Just compile this to your HID and plug in the device.

Dump passwords in plain
This payload is able to dump passwords of users on the target system in plain-text. It uses the excellent Invoke-Mimikatz by Joseph Bialek. You need to host the Invoke-Mimikatz.ps1 on a webserver, it would be downloaded and executed in memory from there. The script could be found in the extras directory.

Lets use it from a local server. Also, lets choose gmail to exfiltrate the results.

And what we get is


Great! There is nothing better to get hold of plain-text credentials.
You could also pass any command of Mimikatz with "Invoke-Mimikatz -command  "

Copy SAM
This payload copies the SAM file with the help of Volume Shadow Service. The SAM file could be exfiltrated ONLY using gmail right now.

I understand that using gmail only means you need to leave credentials of a gmail account on a target. I tested converting the SAM file to hex and exfiltrating using other options but the size of hex file is too big to make it practical, the compression and encoding built in Kautilya, the compress_encode function in exfilmethoddefs file, didn't work either.

Execute Shellcode
Use this to execute shellcode in memory. This is based on the awesome Invoke-Shellcode from Powersploit by Matt Graeber. You need to host the Invoke-Shellcode.ps1 on a webserver, it would be downloaded and executed in memory from there. The script could be found in the extras directory.

After compiling it to a HID and connecting the HID to a target, we could see following on the listener:

The default is set to Metasploit's windows/meterpreter/reverse_https which would work for both 32-bit and 64-bit machines.

Dump Process Memory
This payload takes a full minidump of a process. The dump file could then be exfiltrated using gmail ONLY (same reasons as for Copy SAM). The payload uses logic from Out-MiniDump.ps1 script of Powersploit. By default, the lsass process memory is dumped, but you could specify other process too.

And we recieve the dump in the specified gmail id.
Great! Now this dmp could be used to extract juicy information using any tool of choice.

Kautilya could be found here:

The complete changelog is below:
- Added Execute Shellcode for Windows (under Execution menu).
- Added "Dump passwords in plain" for Windows (under Gather menu).
- Added "Copy SAM (VSS)" for Windows (under Gather menu).
- Added "Dump Process Memory" for Windows (under Gather menu).
- Added "Dump Windows Vault Credentials" for Windows (under Gather menu).
- Added "Add a user and Enable Powershell Remoting" for Windows (under Manage menu).
- Added support for Gems bundler.
- Added more banners of Kautilya.

Hope this would be useful to you. I await feedback, comments and bugs.

Tuesday, June 17, 2014

Hacking Jenkins Servers With No Password - Powershell fun

This post is stolen/copied/inspired from the post by Royce Davis. He posted the awesome original post here on Pentest Geek. I am just taking the hack forward using Nishang and powershell for doing nasty things.

After reading that post I quickly downloaded Jenkins and set it up in my lab. Royce used below code to execute commands on the Jenkins Server.

Lets see the version of powershell on the server by using def proc = 'powershell.exe $psversiontable'.execute() in the above code.

And the result is.

Version 2.0. So we can run powershell cmdlets and other commands. Perfect!

Now lets use powershell one-liner downloader to execute different scripts from Nishang on the Jenkins Server.

To execute the scripts we have to append cmd /c to the powershell command. So, for example, to execute Firebuster from Nishang the code becomes

We can also use encoded scripts. Using Invoke-Encode in Nishang, lets encode Get-Information and execute it.

And the output

What's an exploitation without a meterpreter? So lets use the powershell meterpreter payload generated using msf.

And we have a meterpreter session !

So, the conclusion is, whenever and wherever you are able to execute commands on a Windows machine, try to execute powershell commands and you would be happily surprised.

Nishang could be found here:


Wednesday, June 4, 2014

Introducing Antak - A webshell which utilizes powershell

Duing penetration tests, I always wanted to have a simple yet powerful webshell. For that, I wrote Antak last year, demonstrated it at Defcon 21 but never released for I was busy in other things :)

Antak stands for God of Death in Indian mythology, popularly known as Yamraj. Muhahaha

The webshell is a part of Nishang now. It is written in ASP.Net.

Antak's UI has been designed to resemble a powershell console.

Use clear to clear the output box. Use help to see the built-in help.

Lets see some of its features.

Running Commands

To run commands on the target machine, just type those in the command text box and press enter or click on submit.

Each command is executed in a separate powershell process. To run multiple commands in a single process, use semi-colon (;) separated commands like cd..;pwd;ls

You are effectively sitting on a powershell prompt with -noninteractvie and -executionpolicy bypass parameters. So all powershell commands would run. Great!

Code snip for command execution:

Upload a file

To upload a file using Antak:
1. Write the path writable directory in command box. Usually, at least C:\Windows\Temp should be writable.
2. Use the browse button to locate the file on your local machine.

3. Click on "Upload the file" button.
Also, lets verify if the file has been uploaded.

 Nice! The file has been uploaded.

Code for this:

Download a file

To download a file, just write/copy its complete path in command box and click on the "download" button.

 And this downloaded text file contains username and password to another machine. Of course, you won't find such things in an enterpreise enviroonment (pun intended) :D

Code for download:

Executing Scripts

There are many ways how a script could be executed using Antak. 

UPDATE: In methods 1 and 2 below the script does not touch disk (someone asked me this).

1. Paste the script in command box and click "Encode and Execute".
Lets try this with the egress testing script Firebuster.ps1


2. Using powershell one-liner for download & execute. Paste the one-liner in command box and click on execute.
Lets try this with powershell payload generated using msf.

The one liner which could be used is:

3. An uploaded script could be executed in the usual way.
Lets upload powerpreter on the target and use Get-Information function.



Recall that we are practically on a powershell prompt. So lets try to use powershell remoting to execute commands on remote machines. Two things which are required for using powershell remoting from Antak are:

1. Administrative credentials for the target remote system.
2. Powershell remoting must already be enabled between system where Antak is residing and the target machine. As it is not possible to change any settings due to low privileges under which Antak runs.

Recall that we downloaded a plain-text credential for a remote machine. That could be used now.

Following semi-colon(;) separated commands could be used to achieve this. This command takes username and password in plain and exeucte ipconfig on the target.

Lets use this :)

Great! We are able to execute commands on the remote machine.

That is it for Antak, hope you liked it. It is a part of Nishang and could be found here:

If you would like to see Antak in action, you may like to see the webcast I did for Garage4hackers:

I look forward to feedback, bugs and feature requests.